Los Angeles, California (PRWEB) July 28, 2006
Process Nitrification is a natural biological process where nitrifying bacteria convert toxic ammonia (decomposing food and excrements) into a less harmful nitrate. The right conditions must exist for the nitrifying bacteria to thrive and do their job keeping your fish and invertebrates healthy. See http://www.hdltd.com for additional information.
High levels of ammonia and nitrites pose a serious threat to the environment of your fish and aquarium invertebrates. Without this constant water purifying activity, most forms of fish keeping would be impossible, as fish would rapidly poison themselves on their own wastes. It is also no surprise that high nitrate levels are implicated in some fish diseases. The main source of ammonia comes from metabolic ammonia excreted as a waste product from the gills. In warmer summer temperatures koi will excrete between 50 and 100 mg of ammonia per kilogram of body weight daily.
The other ammonia sources come from fish waste, decomposing food and other organic matter such as algae. Historically, there are two bacterial species involved. Nitrosomonas bacteria, which oxidize ammonia into Nitrite, and Nitrobacter bacteria which converts the nitrite into nitrate, with both species utilizing the energy released by the reactions. This seemingly simple process involves a complex series of reactions that can be summarized in chemist language as:
Nitrosomonas: 55 NH4 + 76 O2 + 109 HCO3-C5H7O2N + 54 NO2- + 57 H2O + 104 H2CO3
Nitrobacter: 400 NO2– + NH4 + 4H2CO3 + HCO3– + 195 O2C5H7O2N + 3H2O + 400 NO3–
What these reactions tell us in plain language is that:
In equation (1), ammonia (NH4+) is combined with oxygen and hydrogen carbonate to produce bacterial cell mass, nitrite (NO2–), water and carbonic acid.
In equation (2), nitrite is combined with ammonia, carbonic acid, hydrogen carbonate and oxygen to produce bacterial cell mass, water, and an abundance of nitrate (NO3–).
For every mg of ammonia-nitrogen oxidized to nitrate-nitrogen approximately 4.3 mg O2 are consumed. Likewise, 8.64 mg of alkalinity in the form of HCO3– are consumed per mg of ammonia-nitrogen oxidized. This is quite a substantial amount of alkalinity, which will dramatically change the character of the aquarium water, affecting both hardness and pH stability. Notice the gradual build up of nitric acid. High acidic levels can promote algae buildup, thusly compounding oxygen levels to drop, and slow growth rates of the denitrifying bacteria.
A scientific/explosive breakthrough has been discovered and patented by HDLTD, (see http://www.hdltd.com or http://www.memory-doctor.com) which simultaneously breaks down the ammonia and nitrates. The major qualities of Right Now Bacteria® are to rapidly convert ammonia (NH3 + NH4OH, NO2), then into nitrates (NO3), in less than 24 hours. The remaining gas is then vented into the atmosphere. This aerobic ammonium oxidation mystifies microbiologists and came as a big surprise and discovery to the science community and aquarium hobbiests. The Right Now Bacteria® combined with the tri base carbon is an ideal combination while pH rock and the sea lab trace elements assist to stabilize initial reactions to keep your aquarium fish healthy.
Saltwater and freshwater aquarium products are available. Heavy metals exist in the water make-up of several bodies of water. These also can be degraded with the usage of Hiatt’s Metal Gone ®. Fish transportation? Not a problem with Hiatt’s Instant Ammonia Destroyer ®. Other products such as Chloradsorb ®, coral food, and the red torpedo filter canister make aquarium and reef tanks upkeep a pleasure, distributed to wholesalers by Hiatt Distribution LTD and to retailers by Memory-Doctor, provide a great opportunity to fish and aquarium enthusiasts. For more information see http://www.hdltd.com or http://www.memory-doctor.com.
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