New Articles on Alkaline Phosphatase, Tryptophan and Cosmid at

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The Science Magazine publishes articles on specific topics in the biological sciences. The latest inclusions cover Alkaline Phosphatase which is an enzyme with multiple use in research and present in all human tissues, Tryptophan which is one of the twenty standard amino acids, and Cosmid which are hybrid plasmids that contains cos DNA sequences.

The Science Magazine covers a wide range of topics including biology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, geography, environment and health. Drawing from this pool of scientific disciplines, it publishes articles on biological topics including those which have recently become popular. Most of these reviews are included in the Science Words Category and in the Science Phrase Category of

The article on Alkaline Phosphatase which covers the hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many molecules. In humans and most other mammals alkaline phosphatase is present in all tissues throughout the entire body and particularly concentrated in liver, bile duct, kidney, bone, and placenta. The article covers a study with monkeys where differences and similarities between the antigens, proteins and enzymes in fertilized and unfertilized eggs were attributed to an alkaline phosphatase. A study in humans showed that there was higher activity of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase in persons with pancreatic disorder. In contrast, diabetics and even severely diabetic persons were capable of normal digestive hydrolysis of disaccharides and oligopeptides. The latter results were confirmed by another experiment which concluded that in several instances carbohydrate intolerance was related to pancreatitis or hepatic disease rather than to diabetes.

The review on the amino acid Tryptophan covers this member of the twenty standard amino acids which also serves as an essential amino acid in the human and mammal diet. It is also important for plant growth and development since application of Tryptophan to their shoot apex can double auxin synthesis which is one of the plant's hormone which stimulates growth. Old, fully elongated leaves usually contain most auxin and tryptophan while young leaves frequently contain insignificant amounts. Tryptophan-rich diets promote health in mammals including humans. A study shows that reduction of the amino acids phenylalanine-tyrosine, valine, threonine, methionine-cystine, isoleucine and Tryptophan in the diet produced a fall in haemagglutinating and blocking antibody responses, although cytotoxic cell-mediated immunity remained intact. In turn, Tryptophan-rich diets have been shown to result in a selective depression of tumor growth in mice by stimulating immune responses. Other studies have documented that plasma phenylalanine and tryptophan increase following bacterial or viral infections, thus, additions of Tryptophan in diets can accelerate response of the body's immune system.

The article on Cosmid at covers the hybrid plasmid that contains cos DNA sequences and is often used as a cloning vector. One example of the latter is cloning of Leguminosarum plasmid on a series of four overlapping cosmid clones. Leguminosarum is involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation and, thus, important for nitrogen fixation in legumes and leguminous crops including beans. The review also includes several examples of Cosmid cloning in R. meliloti, the endosymbiont of lucerne, Rhizobium japonicum and R. leguminosarum, Escherichia coli (E coli), and Anabaena variabilis. Other examples of practical use of Cosmids include restoration of nodulation ability of a mutant lacking nod-1 in peas. Cosmid clones carrying C mixtus DNA also expressed the ability to degrade carboxymethyl cellulose, chitin, pectin, cellobiose, and starch substrates.

The Science Magazine was launched in November 1998 as the online version of the French science magazine "Eurêka - Le magazine des sciences" published since 1995. During the past decade, it has emerged as a comprehensive aggregator of information on biology, on the applied life sciences agriculture, horticulture and forestry, on the earth sciences, on the environmental sciences, and on the health sciences.

The Science Magazine has recently been accredited by the Chinese Ministry of Information Industry with the registration number 案ICP备10204677号. The site delivers its content through a number of RSS feeds and an @EurekaMag Twitter account. The @EurekaMag Twitter account currently features 44,468 tweets and 772 followers. The site accepts advertisements through the Google AdWords system.


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George Maine
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