New Reviews on Cicada, Maggots and Winter Solstice Published at Science Magazine

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The Natural Sciences Magazine publishes articles in all areas of biological science. The latest articles cover Cicada which live in temperate to tropical climates and can cause damage to agricultural crops, shrubs, and trees, Maggots which are larva of flies attacking crops and food. The article on Winter Solstice covers a hemisphere's shortest day and longest night of the year, when the sun's daily maximum elevation in the sky is the lowest.

The Natural Sciences Magazine publishes articles in all areas of the natural sciences including biology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, geography, environment and health. Drawing from this pool of scientific disciplines, it publishes articles, reviews and insights on biological and geographical topics including those which have recently become popular. Most of these reviews are included in the Natural Sciences Keyword Category, the Natural Sciences Keyphrase Category and in the Natural Sciences Reviews Category of the online science magazine.

The review of Cicada covers this insect living in temperate to tropical climates where it is widely recognized due to its large size and unique sound. Cicadas are often called locusts and can cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, shrubs, and trees. The review on Cicada provides observations in the province of Naples which shows show that the adults of cicadas appear in early summer; oviposition begins early in July and continues until the end of August. The eggs are deposited in the lower, green twigs of oak, apple, pear, wild plum, olive, etc, and, less commonly, in the stems of herbaceous plants, such as endive, Centaurus, and some Umbelliferae. The twigs are thus deformed and easily break. In general, the injury is similar to that in North America. Cicada plebeja oviposits in the stems of herbaceous plants or in the dry or nearly dry twigs of ligneous plants. In southern Italy oviposition was detected in the stems of Arundo pliniana. The eggs are laid in batches of 4-12 in cells made with the ovipositor. If stems containing eggs are kept in a dry place, the larvae do not hatch. In nature hatching must take place after rain or heavy dews. In integrated pest management (IPN) these eggs can be parasitized by two Hymenoptera, Cerambicobius cicadae, and Archirileya inopinata. presents a review on Maggots which are larvae of flies. Maggots are significant pests in ecology, economy, and medicine, they attack crops and foodstuffs, spread microbial infections, and cause myiasis. The review on Maggots presents one examination of host plant-dependent competition for apple- and hawthorn-infesting larvae of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella at a field site near Grant, Michigan. Interspecific competition from tortricid and agonoxenid caterpillars and a curculionid weevil was much stronger for Rhagoletis pomonella larvae infesting the ancestral host hawthorn than the derived host apple. Egg to pupal survivorship was estimated as 53% for fly larvae infesting hawthorn fruit without caterpillars and weevils compared to only 27% for larvae in harthorns with interspecific insects. Survivorship was essentially the same between fly larvae infesting apples in the presence or absence of interspecific insects. Intraspecific competition among maggots was also stronger in hawthorns than apples. The authors suggest that decreased performance related to host plant chemistry/nutrition may restrict host range expansion and race formation in Rhagoletis pomonella to those plants where biotic/ecological factors adequately balance the survivorship equation. In another study adult seedcorn maggots were sampled over a 12-year period to assess the impact of tillage practice on population density. No-till and paraplow with only little soil disturbance had fewest maggot adults. Chisel plowing caused a slight increase in numbers of adults, although densities were never as high as plowing and/or disking treatments. The largest number of adults were collected from areas where soil was disturbed, either by plowing and disking or by multiple diskings. Corn and soybean were grown using various management and conservation tillage practices including no-till, paraplow, and chisel plow, multiple diskings, and conventional tillage.

The review of Winter Solstice covers the time when the axial tilt of a planet's polar hemisphere is farthest away from the star that it orbits. This is called midwinter with a hemisphere's longest night and shortest day of the year. The review deals with breeding since many species are daylength sensitive and respond to short daylengths which is part of their annual cycles of photoperiod and reproduction. A marginal delay in the arrest of reproductive activity seen in two experiments indicated that the lack of decrease in daylength around and after the winter solstice may play some role in timing the end of the breeding season. However, the inability to prevent or markedly delay the termination of reproductive activity leads to the conclusion that the primary reason for the transition into anoestrus is an obligatory turn-off. Adult sheep were pinealectomised to disrupt transduction of photoperiodic cues at the summer or winter solstices, or the vernal or autumnal equinoxes. The results of this set of experiments indicate that lengthening days between the winter and summer solstices synchronize onset of the breeding season to the optimal time of year. The relatively long days around the summer solstice suppress reproductive activity and delay the start of the breeding season until late summer or early autumn. The shortening days between the summer solstice and autumnal equinox maintain the necessary intensity and duration of neuroendocrine activity during the approach to the breeding season. In addition, we compared the rates at which E-treated males and females become photorefractory to a winter solstice hold photoperiod.

The Science Magazine was launched in November 1998 as the online version of the French science magazine "Eurêka - Le magazine des sciences" published since 1995. During the past decade, it has emerged as a comprehensive aggregator of information on biology, on the applied life sciences agriculture, horticulture and forestry, on the earth sciences, on the environmental sciences, and on the health sciences.

The Science Magazine has recently been accredited by the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology with the Internet Content Provider (ICP) Number 10204677. The site delivers its content through a number of RSS feeds including a "Most Shared Content" RSS Feed and an @EurekaMag Twitter account. The @EurekaMag Twitter account currently features 45,984 tweets and 861 followers. The Global Alexa Traffic Rank of is currently 799,444. The online traffic can now also be watched in real time using a "Life Traffic Feed" and a "Real-Time View". The site accepts advertisements through the Google AdWords system.


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