New Scientific Insights into Drosophila, Solar Flare and Killer Whale Published

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The Bio Website publishes insights into all areas of biological science. The latest insights cover Drosophila which are small flies which have been been heavily used in research in genetics as a model organism genetics, cell-biology, biochemistry, and developmental biology, and Solar Flare which is a large energy release at the sun's surface. The insight into Killer Whale covers this toothed predatory whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family.

The Bio Website publishes insights into all areas of the bio sciences including biology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, geography, environment and health. Drawing from this pool of scientific disciplines, it publishes articles, reviews and insights on biological topics including those which have recently attained attention. While the Bio-Research Category contains over 36 million references, most of the reviews are included in the Bio-Keyword Category, the Bio-Keyphrase Category and in the Bio-Reviews Category of the online science magazine. All content is now available on a user-friendly and fast Mobile Website.

The insight into Drosophila covers these small fruit flies which have been heavily used as a model organism in general genetics, population genetics, cell-biology, biochemistry, and especially developmental biology. Therefore, extensive efforts are made to sequence drosphilid genomes. The insight covers Drosophila's presumptive circadian pacemaker neurons and their response to nocturnal dim light. At a nighttime illumination comparable to quarter-moonlight intensity, the flies increase activity levels and shift their typical morning and evening activity peaks into the night. In parallel, clock protein levels are reduced, and clock protein rhythms shift in opposed direction in subsets of the previously identified morning and evening pacemaker cells. Other studies show that Drosophila utilizes components of an identified pathway to respond to hypoxia. Hypoxic exposure rapidly induces exploratory behavior in larvae and arrests the cell cycle. These behavioral and cellular responses are diminished by an inhibitor of NO synthase and by a polymorphism affecting a form of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. presents an insight into solar flares which are large energy releases at the sun's surface ejecting electrons, ions, and atoms through the sun's corona into space. Such emitted radiation can affect earth's ionosphere and disrupt long-range radio communications which, in turn, can disturb operation of radars and other devices. The EurekaMag review presents the effects of solar flarees on corn borer adults. The results proved that both the daily and annual catches were significantly modified by the Q-indexes, expressing the different lengths and intensities of the solar flares. On days with high Q-indexes, the number of catches are considerably lower whereas in years with low Q-indexes an increase as high as 45 percent can be experienced in the number of individuals collected. Another study shows that in January 2005, the solar active region NOAA AR 10720 produced five powerful solar flares. During this major solar activity several pronounced variations in the ground-level cosmic ray intensity were recorded. These flares produced energetic solar cosmic rays that caused a giant increase in the count rates of the ground-based cosmic ray detectors. At southern polar neutron monitor stations the increase of the count rate reached several thousand percent.

The insight into killer whales covers the toothed predatory whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family which can be found in all oceans, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. Individual populations of killer whales specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as sea lions, seals, walruses and even other whales. The EurekaMag insight covers identification of causes of death of stranded killer whales. Parasites were found in most killer whales. The nematode Anisakis simplex was found in the stomach of 57 percent of the animals and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma capitatum was present in the intestine of all specimens. An unidentified cestode was found also in the intestines of 14 percent of the individuals. The high infections of Bolbosoma capitatum and Anisakis simplex were not directly related with the cause of death. In the stomachs of four females, beaks of at least eight specimens of the oceanic and epipelagic species Ommastrephes bartramii were found. Genetic analysis of the killer whale Orcinus orca proofs that it is an abundant, highly social species with reduced genetic variation. Researchers found no consistent geographical pattern of global diversity and no mtDNA variation within some regional populations. The regional lack of genetic variation between killer whales appears to be due to the strict matrilineal expansion of local populations.

The Science Magazine was launched in November 1998 as the online version of the French science magazine "Eurêka - Le magazine des sciences" published since 1995. During the past decade, it has emerged as a comprehensive aggregator of information on biology, on the applied life sciences agriculture, horticulture and forestry, on the earth sciences, on the environmental sciences, and on the health sciences.

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