New Reviews of Archeology, Cell Membrane and Volcan Laacher See Published

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The Biology and Geography Website publishes insights into all areas of biological and geographical science. The latest reviews cover Archeology which is the study of human society through recovery and analysis of artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes, and Cell Membrane which is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The insight into Volcan Laacher See covers the volcano which erupted the last time 12,900 years ago and left a vast footprint on Europe.

Volcano Laacher See @

Volcano Laacher See

Laacher See Volcano @

The Biology and Geography Website publishes insights into all areas of the life and earth sciences including biology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, geography, environment and health. Drawing from this pool of scientific disciplines, it publishes articles, reviews and insights on biological topics including those which have recently attained attention. While the Biology and Geography Research Category contains over 36 million references, most of the reviews are included in the Biology and Geography Keyword Category, the Biology and Geography Keyphrase Category and in the Biology and Geography Reviews Category of the online science magazine. All content is now available on a user-friendly and fast Mobile Website.

The review of Archeology covers the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes. The review reports archeologic evidence of dinosaurs in the Latium region, that during Cretaceous times belonged to the Latium-Abruzzi-Campania Carbonate Platform occurring in the Tethyan Ocean between Afroarabia and the southern margin of Europe. The only dinosaur found in that platform before the authors' discovery was the famous and slightly older Scipionyx samniticus. Thus, the authors of that report discovered the first dinosaur footprints in that carbonate platform. It also covers a project which was initiated to create the conditions to develop research activities permanently in the fields of Paleontology, Geology, Archeology and Ecology. A site at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil was considered as an ideal place and to study the beginning of Landscape and Industrial Archeology. From the study of a paleontological core the authors used several analytical methods including palynology, sedimentology, archeology and archives to provide an accurate analysis of environmental changes. Another study proves that traditional North American sweet maize is homozygous for a recessive sugaryl allele. Determining the number of unique alleles among sul maize races is relevant to the debate in archeology and evolutionary biology over whether independent mutation or migration plays a dominant role in the spread of novel phenotypes. The authors, therefore, sequenced sul from 57 cultivars of sul maize and determined that five independent mutations have been selected. presents a scientific review of Cell Membranes which separate the interior of all cells from the outside environment. As such they are selectively permeable and control the movement of ions and organic molecules entering and exiting cells. now includes an extensive review providing scientific information on the cell membrane. It covers many examples about the selectivity of cell membranes of plant and animal cell membranes to certain substances and ways to manipulate that behavior. It presents research on the virus entry across membranes and how cell damage alters membrane permeability. The review also includes experiments on exposure of cell membranes to external electrical fields resulting in their depolarization and subsequent partly reversible electrical breakdown. Medicinal research on cell membranes including effects on increased cholesterol is part of this review as well.

The review of Volcan Laacher See is based on a recent report in a major U.K. daily paper describing the "super volcano" under the Laacher See lake in Germany as a sleeping giant that has recently begun to show worrying signs of awakening. While it has been 12,900 years since the last eruption, the volcano left a vast footprint on Europe. The review on Volcan Laacher covers a study which determined the age of the Laacher See to some 200 yr before the onset of the Younger Dryas cold episode. Carbonized trees and botanical macrofossils preserved by Laacher See Tephra provide detailed regional paleoenvironmental reconstruction and show that open woodland were typical for the cool and humid hemiboreal climatic conditions. In this resoect numerous animal tracks intercalated in Middle Laacher See deposits at the south of the Neuwied Basin are of special interest. Another study used different continental archives such as annually laminated lacustrine sediments, floodplain sediments, and speleothems to reconstruct environmental response to climatic changes and the Laacher See eruption event at circa 12,900 years ago. The authors paid special attention to establishing a reliable time control using varve counting, high-precision radiocarbon dating of tree-ring series, and AMS radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils recovered from lacustrine sediments to correlate and synchronize large-scale environmental changes and events in central Europe. They conclude that the carbonatites of Laacher See and Alnoe were not formed by limestone assimilation but probably derived from gabbroic or ultramafic rocks at depth. Another paper presents evidence that the large, but so far largely ignored eruption of the Laacher See-volcano dated to 12,920 BP, had a dramatic impact on forager demography all along the northern periphery of Late Glacial settlement and precipitated archaeologically visible cultural change.

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