Mannheim, Germany (PRWEB) January 31, 2012
The medical sciences website EurekaMag.com publishes insights into all areas of natural sciences including biology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, geography, environment and health. Drawing from this pool of scientific disciplines, it publishes articles, reviews and insights on medical sciences topics including those which have recently attained attention. While the Medical Sciences Research Category contains over 36 million references, most of the reviews are included in the Medical Sciences Keyword Category, the Medical Sciences Keyphrase Category and in the Medical Sciences Reviews Category of the online science magazine. The Medical Sciences Subjects Category contains links to the most recently published reviews and insights. All content is now available on a user-friendly and fast Mobile m.EurekaMag.com Website.
The EurekaMag.com review of Asexual covers asexual reproduction which is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, inherit the genes of that parent only, and which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the archaea, bacteria and protists, and many plants and fungi. The EurekaMag.com review covers asexual reproduction in Nicotiana. Interspecific protoplast fusion resulted in green plants with leaves intermediate between those of the parents. The cytological analysis of these parasexual hybrids revealed that the chromosome number ranged from 34 to 54. Chloroplast DNA from the sexual hybrid produced restriction endonuclease patterns which were indistinguishable from those of N glauca, confirming maternal inheritance in normal, sexual crosses. In general, patterns of parasexual hybrids resembled those of either Nicotiana glauca or Nicotiana langsdorffii. It also covers immunization efforts against Plasmodium falciparum. Immunization with either of two independent surface components of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages is able to induce at least a partial protective immunity in immunized hosts. Monkeys were separated into three groups of four and immunized either with one of the two polypeptides or with saline. After intravenous challenge with Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages, two monkeys of the control group had to be treated and two recovered spontaneously after peak parasitemia. The four monkeys immunized recovered without treatment while other monkeys immunized with the polypeptide had similar peak parasitemia except one monkey who suffered from a large skin excoriation and who recovered spontaneously after a peak parasitemia of 11%. It follows from Muller's ratchet mechanism for accumulation of mutations that mutations for asexuality are less likely to establish themselves in diploid than in haploid species.
EurekaMag.com presents an insight into Crouzon syndrome (síndrome de crouzon) which is a genetic disorder known as a branchial arch syndrome. Specifically, this syndrome affects the first branchial arch, which is the precursor of the maxilla and mandible. Since the branchial arches are important developmental features in a growing embryo, disturbances in their development create lasting and widespread effects. It is an autosomal dominant disorder that is primarily characterized by craniosynostosis. It has been associated with a variety of amino acid point mutations in the extracellular domain of FGFR2. The review covers a clinical study with infant patient which had mild to severe degree of craniofacial dysostosis of Crouzon type with variable degrees of exorbitism, raised intracranial pressure and mental retardation. Fronto-orbital advancement procedure gave satisfactory results in older infants except in those with severe craniofacial stenosis. The deaths were due to complications of hydrocephalus. Survival was better in those having less severe Crouzon Syndrome irrespective of the type of surgical treatment. However, timely CSF shunt surgery played an important role in the long term survival, improvement of IQ, and ultimate shape of head. The study suggests that CLS is a severe malformation of Crouzons disese due to teratogenic cdamage in the first trimester of pregnancy causing developmental aberration of primary mesenchyme of the neurocranial capsule and base of the skull. Other findings demonstrate that eleven different point mutations responsible for sporadic cases of either Crouzon syndrome or Pfeiffer syndrome arise in the paternal germ line. Prospective studies on intracranial pressure and mental evolution of these children have shown that there were functional consequences in a significant proportion of cases even of single suture fusion. The frequency of increased intracranial hypertension and the risk of mental impairment depend on the age of the child and the type of craniosynostosis. In nonsyndromic cases, the higher risks are observed in multisutural craniosynostoses. In syndromic cases, the risk of intracranial hypertension is higher in Crouzon syndrome, and Apert syndrome carries the higher risk of mental retardation.
The EurekaMag.com review of Trisomy 13 covers the genetic disorder in which a person has three copies of genetic material from chromosome 13, instead of the usual two copies. Rarely, the extra material may be attached to another chromosome. Trisomy 13 occurs when extra DNA from chromosome 13 appears in some or all of the body's cells. Symptoms of this disorder are severe and can include severe mental retardation. The EurekaMag.com review covers these clinical symptoms including microcephaly, hemangioma, long incurved eyelashes, strabismus, enlarged bridge of the nose, abnormally long philtrum, high-arched palate, low set ears, hexadactyly of the 4 extremities, umbilical and inguinal hernias, neonatal respiratory distress, psychomotor and growth retardation. One patient presented also male pseudohermaphroditism and trigonocephaly. Eleven trisomic abortuses were informative: nine trisomic abortuses originated at maternal 1st meiosis; a 21-trisomic abortus resulted from an error at maternal second meiosis; and a 13-trisomic abortus was of maternal first or second meiotic origin. It also presents data demonstrating that fluorescent PCR amplification of STRs can be used for rapid diagnosis of trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13 and can be successfully applied to both prenatal diagnosis and diagnosis of single cells. This study also reports significant numbers of prenatal diagnoses using quantitative fluorescent PCR.
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