Readers who would like to share their experiences of soap making can do so at The Chemical Blog
(PRWEB UK) 13 November 2012
The first thing to be aware of is that the process of soap making involves a chemical reaction between a fatty acid and an alkali, soap being the salt of an acid. This chemical reaction is known as saponification.
The basic ingredients for making soap are:-
- fats or oils
- sodium hydroxide (also known as caustic soda or lye)
Lye is a highly corrosive alkaline substance which you can buy as flakes, pellets or powder. It has the potential to cause serious burns to soft tissue and should always be handled with care. It is important to wear protective clothing when handling lye including safety goggles to protect, rubber gloves, coveralls and appropriate sturdy closed-toe shoes.
The fats or oils used in commercially produced soaps are often animal fats such as tallow lard. Handmade soaps tend to be created using natural oils such as palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil or shea butter. Soaps made with oils usually have a softer texture than those made with hard fats.
- To make soap with sodium hydroxide, prepare a lye solution using the exact measurements outlined in the soap recipe
- Use a container that can withstand very high temperatures as the chemical reaction will produce a heat of more than 90 degrees Centigrade
ALWAYS ADD SODIUM HYDROXIDE TO WATER, NEVER ADD WATER TO SODIUM HYDROXIDE
- Stir the solution continuously until all the lye has dissolved. Place a soap-making thermometer in the lye solution and put the solution in a safe place Whilst preparing the oil or fat.
- Following the chosen recipe put the oils or fats in a large container and gently heat until liquid. At this stage a natural preservative such as carrot root oil or grapefruit seed extract can be added. Put a soap-making thermometer in the liquid oil and leave to cool.
- When both mixtures drop to the required temperature as indicated in the soap recipe slowly and carefully pour the lye solution into the oil and fat mixture and stir constantly to ensure thorough blending.
- To tell when the mixture is ready, drizzle some soap from the mixing spoon onto the surface of the liquid. If the soap stays on top for a moment before it sinks back into the mix, then the soap is ready and the mixture has saponified.
- Now is the time to add any other ingredients such as herbs, plant extracts or fragrances, as well as any dyes if required. Mix well then pour into soap moulds and cover with cardboard.
- Wrap thoroughly in towels or blankets to keep the heat in and to assist the curing process. This will take about 36 hours to complete.
For those who would prefer not to handle sodium hydroxide there are much safer and easier ways of creating handmade soap. ‘Hand-milling’, ‘rebatching’ and ‘melt-and-pour’ methods of soap making eliminate the need to work with caustic soda as the natural pre-made soap bases are purchased ready for your to customize with essential oils, plant or herb extracts.
Readers who would like to share their experiences of soap making can do so at The Chemical Blog.