Publishes New Reviews of Cerebral Cortex, Human Genome Project and Topinambour

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The natural sciences website publishes insights into specific subjects of all areas of natural science. The latest review covers Cerebral Cortex which is is a sheet of neural tissue outermost to the cerebrum of the mammalian brain, the Human Genome Project which was a 13-year effort between 1990 and 2003 coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. Another newly published reviews covers Topinambour which is cultivated widely across the temperate zone and used as a root vegetable native to North America.

The natural sciences website publishes insights into all areas of natural sciences including biology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, geography, environment and health. Drawing from this pool of scientific disciplines, it publishes articles, reviews and insights on natural sciences topics including those which have recently attained attention. While the Natural Sciences Research Category contains over 36 million references, most of the reviews are included in the Natural Sciences Keyword Category, the Natural Sciences Keyphrase Category and in the Natural Sciences Reviews Category of the online science magazine. The Natural Sciences Subjects Category contains links to the most recently published reviews and insights. All content is now available on a user-friendly and fast mobile website.

The review of Cerebral Cortex covers this sheet of neural tissue outermost to the cerebrum of the mammalian brain. It plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness and contains up to six layers, each of which has a different composition in terms of neurons and connectivity. The review covers neuronal necrosis in the cerebral cortex of mice. The researchers collected a sample of cerebellar cortex through the foramen occipitale and they suggested that the primary defect in reeler mice may be in the plasma membrane of cortical plate cells, resulting in a loss of their capacity for mutual recognition and binding. In sheep Golgi impregnation showed that some pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex, particularly in layers III and V, had some to nearly complete dendritic loss. That occurred in all deprived groups but was most typical of deficiency of vitamin B-6. Swelling in dendrites or perikarya was more typical of Cu deficiency. Ultrastructural observation showed large vacuoles in cellular processes of the cerebral cortex in deprived groups. The hippocampus of copper-depleted rats contained dark, apparently degenerating processes whereas axonal swellings were seen in vitamin B-6 deficiency. In another study with mice all mice developed paralytic rabies. After intracerebral inoculation there was early simultaneous infection of neurons in the cerebral cortex and pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, and later there was spread to the cerebellum. After high-dose intracerebral inoculation there was early infection in ependymal cells lining the lateral ventricles and neurons adjacent to the central canal of the spinal cord, suggesting that rabies virus entry into the CNS occurs, at least in part, by a cerebrospinal fluid pathway. presents an insight into the Human Genome Project which is which was a 13-year effort between 1990 and 2003 coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project goals included identification of all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, determination of the sequences of the three billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, storage of this information in a databases, improvement of tools for data analysis, transfer of related technologies to the private sector, and addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that arising from the project. The review covers the promise of the human genome project delivering a one-dimensional string of 100,000 genes and sequences and that comparative mapping will extend that inference to a second dimension representing index species of the twenty living mammalian orders and to a third dimension by phylogenetic description of the genomes of mammal ancestors. Because of its size, the plant rice is only twelve percent of the human or the corn genome, and technology improvements by the human genome project are completely transferable, translating in another fifty percent reduction of the costs. The physical mapping of the rice genome by a group of Japanese researchers provides a jump start for sequencing the genome and forming an international consortium. Indeed, the construction of a mouse physical map with markers is one of the stated goals of the Human Genome Project. With the exception of rare genetic syndromes such as AT or NBS, the background for the inheritance of genetic susceptibility to radiation is unknown. Recently, a large-scale genetic screen of mouse mutants has been established within the German Human Genome Project. The goal of this ENU mutagenesis screen is the generation of mutant mice that will serve as animal models for human diseases and genetic susceptibility.

The review of Topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus) covers this species of sunflower native to eastern North America. It is cultivated widely across the temperate zone for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable. This herbaceous perennial plant grows to 1–3 meters tall with opposite leaves on the lower part of the stem becoming alternate higher up. Alternative names for Topinambour include Jerusalem artichoke, sunroot, sunchoke and earth apple. The review contains a comparative study between the laboratory-based biogas plant and a biogas plant in practice. This study revealed that the results from the laboratory experiments were realistic and transferable into practice. Biogas yields and the ultimate amounts of methane from topinambour co-digestion were much higher compared to other energy crops used as agrarian co-ferments, such as maize, sugar beets, and potatoes. Mean biogas yield was 1,222 liters per kilogram and mean methane yield was 75 percent, and thus both parameters were markedly higher relative to other agricultural co-ferments. Based on mean yields of topinambour tubers in Germany of 6-12 tons per hectare dry matter, biogas yields from approximately 7,800-15,000 m ha and methane yields from 5,800-11,000 m ha can be calculated. Biogas manure from topinambour co-digestion was characterized by high amounts of total N and ammonia-N. Based on results of cultivation of topinambour in different territories of the Russia, topinambour is an important and promising forage crop for the non-black-earth regions giving a rich yield of green mass for silage, and of tubers as seed material.

The Science Magazine was launched in November 1998 as the online version of the French science magazine "Eurêka - Le magazine des sciences" published since 1995. During the past decade, it has emerged as a comprehensive aggregator of information on biology, on the applied life sciences agriculture, horticulture and forestry, on the earth sciences, on the environmental sciences, and on the health sciences.

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