Center for Advanced Cyber Studies: Cyber Terrorism Less Relevant, State Actors' Covert Cyber Operations Reverses the Internet's Security Trajectory.

Share Article

New research article by Jan Kallberg, PhD, titled "From Cyber Terrorism to State Actors’ Covert Cyber Operations" sees significant change in cyber risks from a militarized and highly contested Internet.

Jan Kallberg, PhD

Jan Kallberg, PhD

In reality, the Internet has a reverse trajectory for its security, where the Internet has become more unsafe over time.

A newly published research article in the edited volume "Strategic Intelligence Management National Security Imperatives and Information and Communications Technologies" raises several concerns about the future for the Internet once nation states are becoming actors and use it for state interests.

The article challenge the common belief that the Internet is becoming more secure.

Jan Kallberg, PhD, one of the authors of the article, comments: "In reality, hackers have not achieved any significant national disturbance or damage to the nation state in the last 20 years. Successful hacker attacks mainly stole information that affected a number of individuals or companies. The few events that targeted the government, such as the highly publicized Wikileaks incident, a massive theft of federal information and communications, did not have any significant long-term impact on the targeted society. "

The nation state stood unaffected. Traditionally hackers had little or no interest in destabilizing or challenging the state. The reasoning behind this could be as simple as there is no monetary gain for such activity. Cyber criminality is an enterprise that seeks to earn money through illegal activities and defraud others. That is one reason why fighting cyber crime has had such a low priority as measured by the number of prosecutions. The traditional cyber crime does not threaten the state, the government, or the societal order, and there is no sizable harm to the general population.

During the first 20 years of the Internet era there was a widespread fear of threats from the Internet, but in reality it was fairly secure. The limited abilities and resources of the early attackers contained the threat to criminal activity and marginal damage.

Recent advancements in client computer security, in conjunction with the impact of time and Internet maturity, have created a population at ease and with and trusting of the Internet. In reality, the Internet has a reverse trajectory for its security, where the Internet has become more unsafe over time. The threat no longer engulfs just individuals and businesses, but also the nation state. In almost 20 years concerns have been raised about what single hackers and cyber terrorists can do to a targeted society or individual.

Jan Kallberg, PhD says: " The scenario becomes more complex if a state actor gathers information about cyber vulnerabilities in the networks of a targeted organization or other nation and then outsources the attack to a criminal or terrorist network."

An environment with conflict through proxies could increase the risk for entropy and that the open Internet becomes more restricted and fragmented. This development can be the downfall of the Internet as we know it.


Jan Kallberg's academic website can be found at:
Google Scholar:
List of cyber publication:

Center for Advanced Cyber Studies is a research group lead by Dr. Jan Kallberg. The center is a platform for collaboration and joint project in cyber defense and cyber operations studies. Dr. Kallberg can be reached by email jkallberg(at)cyberdefense(dot)com.

Dr. Kallberg, founder of Center for Advanced Cyber Studies, is open to be interviewed in regard to cyber security, offensive cyber operations, cyber deterrence, cyber superiority, threats and opportunities of a militarized cyber space. LinkedIn profile:

Share article on social media or email:

View article via:

Pdf Print

Contact Author

Jan Kallberg, PhD
Visit website