Ames, Iowa (PRWEB) May 07, 2013

In the beginning stages, arithmetic lessons comprise of basic operations with fractions and decimal numbers. Repeated exercises with long multiplication and division often become monotonous and uninteresting. To keep students motivated in learning arithmetical skills, it is imperative that students are introduced to practical story problems and problems in science and engineering. Twelve modules, out of fifty-five, in the Arithmetic software introduce students to application of arithmetic.

The problems on ratio and proportion introduce the concepts of direct, inverse, and combined relationships among quantities. These problems connect three quantities, namely, the amount of work done, number of people doing the work, and time required to complete the work.

The problems on relative velocity are categorized into two classes. Problems in the first class deal with relative velocity between two moving objects. Problems in the second class deal with the relative velocity of boats and airplanes with respect to the medium of travel, with respect to the ground, and the velocity of medium.

The problems on units of physical quantities, such as pressure and power, introduce the students to British Gravitational and the SI unit systems. Students learn to convert quantities given in one unit system to the other.

The problems on area introduce students to the calculation of areas of uncommon shapes, such as parallelograms and quadrilaterals. The problems on volume introduce students to the calculation of surface areas and volumes of solids, such as cylinders, cones, spheres, and prisms.

Two modules introduce the idea of power. Problems in these modules demonstrate the method of calculation for the mechanical power required in a cruising automobile and electrical power required in various household appliances. Students learn the ideas of drag force, rolling resistance, voltage, current, and the meaning of kilowatt-hour. Students learn to calculate the yearly cost of operating various household machines, such as a dishwasher or a hair dryer.

By using the module on computer science, students learn about binary and hexadecimal systems, conversion among systems, and the operation of various logical gates that are at the core of the functioning of computers.

The fire-hose problems teach the students the concept of pressure and show them simple uses of the Bernoulli’s equation. Chemical reaction problems teach the students the concepts of molar mass and the masses of reactants and yields in a chemical reaction. Rocket problems introduce the students to the rocket equation and they can do calculations involving burn time, propellant mass, thrust and impulse, payload, and velocity at burnout.