Dallas, Texas (PRWEB) November 21, 2013
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections acquired in hospitals and in the community setting (Foxman, 2010). Globally, an estimated 150 million UTIs occur annually, resulting in over six billion dollars in direct healthcare expenditures (Stamm and Norrby, 2001). In the US alone, UTI results in nearly seven million office visits, and one million emergency department visits each year (Foxman, 2002). A UTI can occur when daily living activities and medical interventions aid in the movement of bacteria into the urethra; however, bacterial colonization does not always lead to the development of UTI symptoms (Foxman, 2010). Although UTIs can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, gram-negative bacteria are the pathogens most frequently associated with UTIs (Gaynes et al., 2005). Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly resistant to individual antimicrobials, and of particular concern, is the emergence of multidrug-resistant activity in these organisms (D’Agata, 2004). Although there has been little change in the predominant causative pathogens in the past few decades, individual pathogen frequency and resistance patterns of gram-negative pathogens vary considerably between settings, countries, and continents (Gupta et al., 2001; Ortega et al., 2013; Ronald, 2002; Shigemura et al., 2005).
This report provides an overview of the risk factors for UTI in the seven major markets (7MM) (US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, and Japan), and includes a 10-year epidemiological forecast for incident cases of UTI segmented by age (0–≥85 years), sex, causative pathogen (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, and Acinetobacter), multidrug resistance, and carbapenem resistance in these markets. The forecast in the US is focused on incident cases caused by gram-negative bacteria in three sites of acquisition (nosocomial, healthcare-associated, and community-acquired), the 5EU (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK) forecast is focused on healthcare-associated UTI incident cases caused by all pathogens, and the forecast in Japan includes incident cases caused by all pathogens that were diagnosed in intensive care units (ICUs).
According to forecast, the number of incident cases of UTI will increase in the US during the forecast period. The largest number of cases will be classified as community-acquired and occur in women ≥80 years of age. The 5EU will see a slight increase in the number of healthcare-associated incident cases of UTI during the forecast period, with the highest number of cases occurring among women in Germany, and among those ages 70–79 years. Moreover, the most prevalent causative pathogen will be E. coli. Japan is forecast to see a large increase in the number of incident cases of UTI occurring during the forecast period in ICUs, with the greatest number of cases occurring among women and those ≥80 years. Similar to the US and the 5EU, GlobalData epidemiologists expect that E. coli will be the most prevalent causative pathogen in this market.
A major strength of this analysis is that epidemiologists used country-specific sources for each market in the analysis and were able to obtain country-specific national surveillance data for the 5EU and Japan. The use of country-specific sources is especially important for antimicrobial resistance data as the rates of resistance have been found to vary considerably between countries. Additionally, because resistance rates have changed over time, GlobalData’s use of recent sources for resistance rates ensures that the estimates for the number of resistant cases of UTI reflect the most current situation in each market.
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