Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination

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Reportbuyer.com just published a new market research report: Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination.

This evaluates the global markets for saline water desalination plants. It analyzes the water needs of 18 countries in five world regions and known projects by country for the next five years (through 2018) are presented, along with estimated capacity additions, market values and growth rates for each world region.

Use this report to:

-Receive an in-depth analysis of the global markets for saline water desalination plants.
-An overview of the technical aspects of the well-known thermal desalination methods (i.e., multistage flash distillation, multieffect distillation, vapor compression), membrane desalination processes (i.e., reverse osmosis, nanofiltration) and a few novel desalination methods (e.g., freezing, gas hydrate formation, membrane distillation, capacitive deionization).
-Receive information on the water needs of 18 countries in five world regions including details of projects by country for the next five years along with estimated capacity
additions, market values and growth rates for each world region.
-Receive information on industry structure and patent analysis.

Highlights

-The global market for seawater and brackish water desalination plants is expected to reach $4.1 billion in 2013. The market is expected to grow to $7.2 billion in 2018 for a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.9%.
-The conventional processes market, as a segment, is expected to reach $4.1 billion in 2013. It is further expected to grow to nearly $7.2 billion in 2018, a CAGR of 11.9%.
-The other technologies segment in seawater and brackish water desalination plants market is expected to reach $12 million in 2013. It is further expected to grow to $18 million in 2018, a CAGR of 8.5%.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This comprehensive technology market research report evaluates the global markets for saline water desalination plants. The goals are to provide meaningful information, unbiased analysis and an assessment of the roles that desalination can play now and in the future of water treatment technology. Technical aspects of both thermal and membrane desalination processes are outlined, as well as a few alternative techniques that may be viable in the future. The report analyzes the water needs of 18 countries in five world regions. Known projects by country for the next five years are presented, along with estimated capacity additions, market values and growth rates for each world region.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The need for pure water is a problem of global proportions. With each passing year, the quality of the planet’s water measurably deteriorates, presenting challenges for the major users. Water treatment has become an area of global concern as individuals, communities, industries, countries and their national institutions strive for ways to keep this essential resource available and suitable for use. During the past three decades, desalination systems have emerged as effective solutions for transforming saline, brackish and contaminated water into useable and/or potable products. In addition to technical advances in the processes, parallel price drops in the processes, especially membrane-based methods, have made desalination affordable for countries that were previously unable to consider the possibility. This has created a robust and rapidly growing market in which projects and corporate developments are constantly evolving.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to be as comprehensive as possible. It is created to be usable by a broad audience of business, technical and regulatory practitioners on a global scale. This document is an information source on the industry, a reference manual on desalination technology and a data resource for decision makers who must stay abreast of the state of the art. This report presents analysis and forward-thinking data that will be advantageous to manufacturers and suppliers, as well as to local, state, and federal governments and foreign legislatures. Engineers, utilities and corporate planners will benefit from accessing information on the global demand for desalination plants.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The study presents an overview of the technical aspects of the well-known thermal desalination methods (i.e., multistage flash distillation, multieffect distillation, vapor compression), membrane desalination processes (i.e., reverse osmosis, nanofiltration) and a few novel desalination methods (e.g., freezing, gas hydrate formation, membrane distillation, capacitive deionization). Capital costs for various types of plants, as well as operating cost breakdowns, are given to illustrate the average expense of constructing various facilities. These cost estimates are then used to calculate market sizes. A review of proposed projects is listed in individual country outlooks, and estimates for regional desalination capacity additions, market sizes and predicted market growth rates are presented for five world regions: the U.S. and Canada, Europe, the Middle East/Africa, Asia-Pacific and Latin America/Caribbean.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Research began with a re-analysis of the available technical and business literature, as well as an evaluation of the personal records of the water treatment industry available to the author. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives, along with a review of their published works, provide the backbone for an evaluation of the desalination industry. Information sources for the study also include online research, patent literature and technical journals. In evaluating the global market, information was obtained from the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Department of State, Aquastat, the United Nation’s Global Water Information System and publications from the International Desalination Association, the European Desalination Association and the Middle East Desalination Research Center.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
METHODOLOGY AND
INFORMATION SOURCES
3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC PUBLICATIONS 3
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 3
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SEAWATER AND BRACKISH WATER
DESALINATION PLANTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SEAWATER AND BRACKISH WATER
DESALINATION PLANTS, 2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 10
WATER QUALITY 10
SAFE DRINKING WATER STANDARDS 10
WATER QUANTITY 11
WATER SALINITY 12
TABLE 1 WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L) 13
TABLE 2 SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATERS (PPM) 14
TABLE 3 WATER HARDNESS 14
SOURCE WATERS USED FOR DESALINATION 14
TABLE 4 TOTAL WORLD DESALINATION CAPACITY BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012
(%) 15
FIGURE 1 TOTAL WORLD DESALINATION CAPACITY BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012
(%) 15
DESALTED WATER END USES 15
TABLE 5 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY (%) 16
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY (%) 16
DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 16
BRIEF HISTORY OF DESALINATION 17
FIGURE 3 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 17
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 18
THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES 19
COMPARISON OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 19
TABLE 6 COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS 20
COMPARATIVE COSTS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 21
TABLE 7 GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE
TECHNOLOGIES ($/CUBIC METERS) 21
TABLE 8 GLOBAL INSTALLATIONS BY NUMBER OF PLANTS AND CAPACITY,
1945-2012 22
TABLE 9 LARGEST DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY, COMMISSIONED OR
CONTRACTED, JUNE 2013 23
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2012 (%) 24
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2012 (%) 24
CHAPTER 4 MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 26
REVERSE OSMOSIS 26
TABLE 11 MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES 27
NANOFILTRATION 27
ELECTRODIALYSIS 28
COST OF TECHNOLOGIES 28
CAPITAL COSTS 28
TABLE 12 GLOBAL CAPITAL COSTS OF MEMBRANE DESALINATION BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE AND PLANT SIZE (AVG. $/GAL.) 29
OPERATING COSTS 29
TABLE 13 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING BRACKISH WATER WITH RO, 2012
(%) 30
FIGURE 5 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING BRACKISH WATER WITH RO, 2012
(%) 30
TABLE 14 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING SEAWATER WITH RO, 2012 (%) 31
FIGURE 6 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING BRACKISH WATER WITH RO, 2012
(%) 31
COST TRENDS 31
TABLE 15 GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, INCLUDING
DEBT SERVICE AND OPERATING EXPENSES, 1980-2010 ($/1,000 GALS) 32
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, INCLUDING
DEBT SERVICE AND OPERATING EXPENSES, 1980–2010 ($/1,000 GALS) 32
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS 33
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS ($/1,000 GALS
(3.8 CUBIC METERS)) 33
MARKET VALUE BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TYPE 34
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 35
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 35
CHAPTER 5 THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES 37
MULTISTAGE FLASH DISTILLATION 37
COST 37
TABLE 18 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MSF,
2012 (%) 38
FIGURE 10 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MSF,
2012 (%) 39
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MSF DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012 ($/GAL) 39
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MSF DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955–2012 ($/GAL) 39
MULTIEFFECT DISTILLATION 40
COST 41
TABLE 20 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MED,
2012 (%) 41
FIGURE 12 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MED,
2012 (%) 41
VAPOR COMPRESSION 42
MARKET VALUE BY THERMAL TECHNOLOGY TYPE 42
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY THERMAL TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 43
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY THERMAL TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 44
CHAPTER 6 OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 46
CRYSTALLIZATION 46
FREEZING 46
GAS HYDRATE PROCESSES 47
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION 47
MEMSTILL 48
SOLAR HUMIDIFICATION 48
FLOW-THROUGH CAPACITOR 49
FORWARD OSMOSIS 49
ION EXCHANGE 50
MARKET VALUE OF OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 50
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR OTHER TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR OTHER TECHNOLOGIES, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 52
CHAPTER 7 WORLD MARKETS FOR DESALINATION 54
TABLE 23 GLOBAL WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 54
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 55
TABLE 24 ABSOLUTE WATER STRESS OR SHORTAGE IN THE 20 MOST AFFECTED
COUNTRIES, PROJECTED TO 2025 55
TABLE 25 WATER STRESS OR SHORTAGE IN THE 20 MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES,
PROJECTED TO 2025 56
WORLD MARKET BY REGION 57
TABLE 26 DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY AND WORLD REGION, 2012 57
FIGURE 16 DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY AND WORLD REGION, 2012
(CUBIC METERS/D) 57
TABLE 27 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 58
FIGURE 17 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 58
TABLE 28 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED THERMAL DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 59
FIGURE 18 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED THERMAL DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 59
TABLE 29 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED MEMBRANE DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 60
FIGURE 19 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED MEMBRANE DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 60
TABLE 30 MARKET VALUE BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 20 MARKET VALUE BY GLOBAL REGION, 2000–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
U.S. AND CANADA 63
Economic Trends 63
U.S. 63
Canada 63
Water Needs 64
TABLE 31 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY SECTOR, 2005 (BILLION GPD, %) 64
FIGURE 21 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY SECTOR, 2005 (%) 64
TABLE 32 TOTAL U.S. FRESHWATER WITHDRAWALS BY STATE, 2005 (CUBIC
METERS/D) 66
Desalination Capacity 66
TABLE 33 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012 (%) 67
FIGURE 22 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012
(%) 67
TABLE 34 CUMULATIVE U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, 2013 (%) 68
FIGURE 23 CUMULATIVE U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, 2013 (%) 68
TABLE 35 U.S. STATES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2012 69
TABLE 36 U.S. DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY, 2012 (%) 70
FIGURE 24 U.S. DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY, 2012 (%) 70
OUTLOOK 70
Heartland 71
FIGURE 25 POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS 71
Mid-Atlantic 71
Oil, Gas and Coal Basins 72
Inland Urban Areas 72
Coastal Urban Areas 73
Florida 73
The Tampa Bay Experience 73
California 74
FIGURE 26 CALIFORNIA'S PROPOSED SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANTS 75
Texas 75
FIGURE 27 PROPOSED DESALINATION PLANTS IN TEXAS 76
VALUE OF THE U.S./CANADIAN MARKET 76
TABLE 37 U.S./CANADA MARKET VALUE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 28 U.S./CANADA MARKET VALUE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 79
EUROPE 79
ECONOMIC TRENDS 79
WATER NEEDS 80
SPAIN 81
Outlook 81
CYPRUS 82
Outlook 82
U.K. 83
Outlook 83
VALUE OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET 84
TABLE 38 VALUE OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 85
FIGURE 29 VALUE OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 85
MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA 86
ECONOMIC TRENDS-MIDDLE EAST 86
ECONOMIC TRENDS-AFRICA 86
WATER NEEDS 87
SAUDI ARABIA 87
Outlook 88
UAE 89
Outlook 89
LIBYA 90
Outlook 90
ISRAEL 90
Outlook 92
KUWAIT 92
Outlook 92
ALGERIA 93
Outlook 93
JORDAN 93
Outlook 94
VALUE OF THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET 94
TABLE 39 VALUE OF THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97
FIGURE 30 VALUE OF THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97
ASIA-PACIFIC 97
ECONOMIC TRENDS 98
WATER NEEDS 98
AUSTRALIA 98
Outlook 99
CHINA 99
Outlook 100
INDIA 101
Outlook 102
VALUE OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET 102
TABLE 40 VALUE OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 31 VALUE OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN 105
ECONOMIC TRENDS 105
WATER NEEDS 105
THE BAHAMAS 106
Outlook 106
CHILE 107
Outlook 107
MEXICO 107Outlook 108
VALUE OF THE LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN MARKET 108
TABLE 41 VALUE OF THE LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
FIGURE 32 VALUE OF THE LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, 2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
CHAPTER 8 PATENT ANALYSIS 112
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 112
TABLE 42 PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2008-2013 (NUMBER, %) 113
FIGURE 33 PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2008–2013 (%) 113
PATENTS BY COMPANY 114
TABLE 43 PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER, 2008-2013
(%) 115
CHAPTER 9 TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS AND RESEARCH TRENDS 118
LARGE-AREA MODULES 118
NF PRETREATMENT FOR THERMAL DESALINATION 119
RESEARCH TRENDS 120
DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP 120
TABLE 44 DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS
AND RECOMMENDED R&D 121
NEW MEMBRANE MATERIALS 123
Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites 123
Carbon Nanotube Membranes 123
Aquaporins 124
Oxidant-resistant Membranes 124
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 125
TABLE 45 RECOMMENDED RES/DESALINATION COMBINATIONS 125
Solar 126
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) 127
SWCC Projects 127
Wind 128
TABLE 46 WIND-POWERED DESALINATION PLANTS BY LOCATION, 1998-2012 128
Nuclear Power 129
Nuclear 129
Tidal Energy 130
Hybrid RO/Thermal Plants 131
BRINE DISPOSAL 131
Alternative Brine Disposal Methods 132
Beneficial Brine Reuse 133
Concentrate Minimization 133
Zero Liquid Discharge 134
Recovery and Resale of Salts in Desalination Brine 134
CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 136
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 136
MARKET SHARE 137
TABLE 47 DESALINATION PLANT SUPPLIER MARKET SHARE, 2012 (%) 137
FIGURE 34 DESALINATION PLANT SUPPLIER MARKET SHARES, 2012 (%) 137
COMPANY PROFILES 138
ABENGOA WATER 138
ACCIONA AGUA/ACCIONA SA 139
ACE WATER TREATMENT CO., LTD 139
ACWA (ARABIAN COMPANY FOR WATER & POWER DEVELOPMENT) POWER
INTERNATIONAL 140
AFTON PUMPS, INC. 140
AL KAWTHER INDUSTRIES, LTD. 141
ALFA LAVAL 141
AMERICAN ENGINEERING SERVICES (AES) 142
AES Arabia, Ltd. 142
AQUALIA 142
AQUALYNG 143
AQUATECH INTERNATIONAL CORP. 143
BIWATER, PLC 144
Biwater AEWT, Inc. 144
CADAGUA 144
CANDESAL WATER SYSTEMS 145
CLYDEUNION PUMPS 145
CONSOLIDATED WATER CO., LTD. 146
CORODEX INDUSTRIES 147
CULLIGAN HELLAS 147
DANFOSS A/S 148
DEGREMONT (SUEZ) 148
DEMONT 148
DOOSAN HEAVY INDUSTRIES & CONSTRUCTION 149
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 149
Dow Liquid Separations 150
DUCHTING PUMPS 150
EBARA CORP. 151
ENERGY RECOVERY INC. 152
FICHTNER GMBH 152
FISIA ITALIMPIANTI 153
FLOWSERVE 153
FLUID EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT CO. (FEDCO) 154
GENERAL ELECTRIC 154
GRAHAMTEK SYSTEMS 155
GRUNDFOS 155
H2O INNOVATION 156
HITACHI ZOSEN CORP. 157
HYDRANAUTICS 157
HYFLUX, LTD. 158
IDE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD. 158
ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS 159
INGETEAM 160
INIMA MEDIO AMBIENTE 160
INTERNATIONAL POWER, PLC 161
KINDASA WATER SERVICES 161
KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 162
KSB GROUP 162
KULJIAN CORP. 163
KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES 163
LAHMEYER INTERNATIONAL GMBH 163
MARUBENI CORP. 164
MEMSYS GMBH 164
METITO (OVERSEAS), LTD. 165
MET-PRO GLOBAL PUMP SOLUTIONS 165
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES 166
NANOASIS 166
NANOH2O, INC. 166
NATCO GROUP/CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP. 167
NITTO DENKO CORP. 168
ORGANO CORP. 168
OSMOFLO 168
PENTAIR 169
PORIFERA INC. 169
POSEIDON RESOURCES CORP. 170
SACYR-VALLEHERMOSO 170
SALT SEPARATION SERVICES, LTD. 171
SASAKURA ENGINEERING 171
SEMBCORP UTILITIES PTE, LTD. 172
SETE ENERGY SAUDI FOR INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS, LTD. (SETE ENERGY) 173
SEVERN TRENT SERVICES 173
SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGIES 174
SOGEX OMAN CO., LLC 174
SULZER/SULZER PUMPS 175
SUMITOMO CORP. 175
TAM ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES/TAM GROUP 176
TEDAGUA/COBRA GROUP (ACS) 176
TORAY INDUSTRIES 177
Toray Membrane USA 177
TORISHIMA PUMP MANUFACTURING CO., LTD. 178
TOYOBO CO., LTD. 178
UEM, INC. 179
VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES 179
WETICO 180
WOONGJIN CHEMICAL 181
XYLEM INC. 181
CHAPTER 11 APPENDIX 184
TABLE 48 PATENT SURVEY, 2008 184
TABLE 49 PATENT SURVEY, 2009 185
TABLE 50 PATENT SURVEY, 2010 190
TABLE 51 PATENT SURVEY, 2011 192
TABLE 52 PATENT SURVEY, 2012 195
TABLE 53 PATENT SURVEY, 2013 202

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SEAWATER AND BRACKISH WATER
DESALINATION PLANTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L) 13
TABLE 2 SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATERS (PPM) 14
TABLE 3 WATER HARDNESS 14
TABLE 4 TOTAL WORLD DESALINATION CAPACITY BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012 (%) 15
TABLE 5 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY (%) 16
TABLE 6 COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS 20
TABLE 7 GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE
TECHNOLOGIES ($/CUBIC METERS) 21
TABLE 8 GLOBAL INSTALLATIONS BY NUMBER OF PLANTS AND CAPACITY,
1945-2012 22
TABLE 9 LARGEST DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY, COMMISSIONED OR
CONTRACTED, JUNE 2013 23
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2012 (%) 24
TABLE 11 MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES 27
TABLE 12 GLOBAL CAPITAL COSTS OF MEMBRANE DESALINATION BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE AND PLANT SIZE (AVG. $/GAL.) 29
TABLE 13 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING BRACKISH WATER WITH RO, 2012
(%) 30
TABLE 14 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING SEAWATER WITH RO, 2012 (%) 31
TABLE 15 GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, INCLUDING DEBT
SERVICE AND OPERATING EXPENSES, 1980-2010 ($/1,000 GALS) 32
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS 33
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 35
TABLE 18 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MSF,
2012 (%) 38
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MSF DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012 ($/GAL) 39
TABLE 20 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MED,
2012 (%) 41
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY THERMAL TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR OTHER TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 51
TABLE 23 GLOBAL WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 54
TABLE 24 ABSOLUTE WATER STRESS OR SHORTAGE IN THE 20 MOST AFFECTED
COUNTRIES, PROJECTED TO 2025 55
TABLE 25 WATER STRESS OR SHORTAGE IN THE 20 MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES,
PROJECTED TO 2025 56
TABLE 26 DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY AND WORLD REGION, 2012 57
TABLE 27 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 58
TABLE 28 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED THERMAL DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 59
TABLE 29 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED MEMBRANE DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 60
TABLE 30 MARKET VALUE BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 31 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY SECTOR, 2005 (BILLION GPD, %) 64
TABLE 32 TOTAL U.S. FRESHWATER WITHDRAWALS BY STATE, 2005 (CUBIC
METERS/D) 66
TABLE 33 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012 (%) 67
TABLE 34 CUMULATIVE U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2013 (%) 68
TABLE 35 U.S. STATES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2012 69
TABLE 36 U.S. DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CAPACITY,
2012 (%) 70
TABLE 37 U.S./CANADA MARKET VALUE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 38 VALUE OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 39 VALUE OF THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 40 VALUE OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 41 VALUE OF THE LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 42 PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2008-2013 (NUMBER, %) 113
TABLE 43 PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER, 2008-2013 (%) 115
TABLE 44 DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS
AND RECOMMENDED R&D 121
TABLE 45 RECOMMENDED RES/DESALINATION COMBINATIONS 125
TABLE 46 WIND-POWERED DESALINATION PLANTS BY LOCATION, 1998-2012 128
TABLE 47 DESALINATION PLANT SUPPLIER MARKET SHARE, 2012 (%) 137
TABLE 48 PATENT SURVEY, 2008 184
TABLE 49 PATENT SURVEY, 2009 185
TABLE 50 PATENT SURVEY, 2010 190
TABLE 51 PATENT SURVEY, 2011 192
TABLE 52 PATENT SURVEY, 2012 195
TABLE 53 PATENT SURVEY, 2013 202

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SEAWATER AND BRACKISH WATER
DESALINATION PLANTS, 2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 TOTAL WORLD DESALINATION CAPACITY BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012
(%) 15
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY (%) 16
FIGURE 3 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 17
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2012 (%) 24
FIGURE 5 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING BRACKISH WATER WITH RO, 2012
(%) 30
FIGURE 6 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATING BRACKISH WATER WITH RO, 2012
(%) 31
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, INCLUDING DEBT
SERVICE AND OPERATING EXPENSES, 1980–2010 ($/1,000 GALS) 32
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS ($/1,000 GALS (3.8
CUBIC METERS)) 33
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 35
FIGURE 10 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MSF,
2012 (%) 39
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MSF DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955–2012 ($/GAL) 39
FIGURE 12 COST ALLOCATION OF DESALINATED WATER PRODUCTION WITH MED,
2012 (%) 41
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST BY THERMAL TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 44
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR OTHER TECHNOLOGIES, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 52
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 55
FIGURE 16 DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY AND WORLD REGION, 2012
(CUBIC METERS/D) 57
FIGURE 17 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 58
FIGURE 18 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED THERMAL DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 59
FIGURE 19 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED MEMBRANE DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 60
FIGURE 20 MARKET VALUE BY GLOBAL REGION, 2000–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 21 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY SECTOR, 2005 (%) 64
FIGURE 22 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012 (%) 67
FIGURE 23 CUMULATIVE U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, 2013 (%) 68
FIGURE 24 U.S. DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY, 2012 (%) 70
FIGURE 25 POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS 71
FIGURE 26 CALIFORNIA'S PROPOSED SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANTS 75
FIGURE 27 PROPOSED DESALINATION PLANTS IN TEXAS 76
FIGURE 28 U.S./CANADA MARKET VALUE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 29 VALUE OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 85
FIGURE 30 VALUE OF THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97
FIGURE 31 VALUE OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2000-2018
($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 32 VALUE OF THE LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, 2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
FIGURE 33 PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2008–2013 (%) 113
FIGURE 34 DESALINATION PLANT SUPPLIER MARKET SHARES, 2012 (%) 137FIGURE 16 DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY AND WORLD REGION, 2012
(CUBIC METERS/D) 57
FIGURE 17 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 58
FIGURE 18 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED THERMAL DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 59
FIGURE 19 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED MEMBRANE DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2012 (MILLION CUBIC METERS/D) 60
FIGURE 20 MARKET VALUE BY GLOBAL REGION, 2000–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 21 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY SECTOR, 2005 (%) 64
FIGURE 22 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE WATER TYPE, 2012 (%) 67
FIGURE 23 CUMULATIVE U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, 2013 (%) 68
FIGURE 24 U.S. DESALTED WATER END USES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
CAPACITY, 2012 (%) 70
FIGURE 25 POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS 71
FIGURE 26 CALIFORNIA'S PROPOSED SEAWATER DESALINATION PLANTS 75
FIGURE 27 PROPOSED DESALINATION PLANTS IN TEXAS 76
FIGURE 28 U.S./CANADA MARKET VALUE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 29 VALUE OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, 2000-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 85
FIGURE 30 VALUE OF THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97
FIGURE 31 VALUE OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2000-2018
($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 32 VALUE OF THE LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, 2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
FIGURE 33 PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2008–2013 (%) 113
FIGURE 34 DESALINATION PLANT SUPPLIER MARKET SHARES, 2012 (%) 137

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Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination

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For more information:
Sarah Smith
Research Advisor at Reportbuyer.com
Email: query@reportbuyer.com
Tel: +44 208 816 85 48
Website: http://www.reportbuyer.com

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