Newquay/United Kingdom (PRWEB) July 01, 2013
Conventionally Chrome–cobalt, Titanium and Zirconium have been the material of choice for dentures, bridges and Implant-Superstructures, but for some time the evolution of Polymers such as PEEK Optima or BioHPP especially for the dental industry has lead to an increase of applications of the material. Due to the fact that worldwide thousands of dental implants are placed every day the dental community is very interested in new materials which can improve and simplify the sometimes very complex and expensive process of restoring these implants with crowns, bridges and dentures.
Firstly: what is PEEK?
PEEK stands for Polyether ether ketone and is a colourless organic thermoplastic material with excellent mechanical and chemical resistance properties.
This material is being used for medical applications such as spine implants for many years and is currently becoming more and more popular in dental laboratories and dental practices.
But this material is everything but new considering that the origins of these materials date back to 1977 when Chemists (Rose and his team) at Imperial Chemical Industries started to construct polymers based on principles developed in the 1930’s. One of their first products was the aromatic polyether ketone family and the first variation of the theme of this family was the polymer polyether ether ketone B which is now simply known as PEEK. Slightly more complicated is its chemical name:
The combination of its mechanical properties its biocompatibility makes this material very attractive to medical and dental applications.
Metal in comparison has several disadvantages when used in medical and / or dental applications:
Thus far, PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact within the field of spine and orthopaedic implants but recently new versions of PEEK for dental applications have been developed.
In 1999 the first ever advanced implantable thermoplastic material was developed by Invibio Biomaterial Solutions: PEEK Optima.
The addition of Carbon Fibres enhances the mechanical properties of the original material with an increase of stiffness, strength and creep resistance.
PEEK Optima is currently used in dentistry for temporary Abutments, healing caps, telescopic attachments, precision attachments and Implant-supported superstructures. With CAD-CAM technology PEEK “blanks” can be used to mill frameworks for dentures or bridges within minutes.
Another Variant of PEEK is BioHPP developed by Bredent GmbH. BioHPP stands for Bio High Performance Polymer and has been developed especially for dental applications.
The modification of the material consists of an addition of a special ceramic filler with a grain size between 0.3 to 0.5 μm. According to the manufacturer the small grain size results in a constant homogeneity. Also the small filler size leads to extremely good polishing properties.
In contrary to PEEK Optima this material can also be vacuum pressed in combination with the conventional lost wax technique. The material has been proven to very popular amongst dental technicians. There is even a Facebook Page dedicated to the sharing of pictures and knowledge about the material!
The material has been tested in cooperation with 2 universities (Jena University and Regensburg University) and it has been shown that the Elasticity of the material resembles strongly the elasticity of human bone. This property makes it a very interesting material for the restoration of dental implants.
Implants are osseointegrated without the formation of a periodontal ligament compared with a natural tooth. Conventional materials such as metal and zirconium have very little elasticity which can lead to fractures of the porcelain or TMJ problems. Allergies and corrosion are also disadvantages of these materials.
Therefore it is the cushion effect of PEEK which makes it a desirable material for implant bridges and crowns.
Denture framework are conventionally made from Chrome-Cobalt. BioHPP or Juvora can be a viable alternative to Chrome-Cobalt as it is lighter, does not cause any galvanic elements (corrosion) when in contact with other metals in the mouth. Especially the option of milling the material (Juvora) would be a major advantage. However the question remains whether or not denture framework made with the somewhat bulky Juvora will become popular with dentists and patients. BioHPP which can be pressed seems to offer slightly less bulky structures but long term in vivo tests are not available yet.