Grants Pass, OR (PRWEB) April 27, 2015
Climate change predictions are largely based on computer weather models. Their accuracy depends on the number of variables used and the availability of large amounts of data. Recently, two noted scientists, water researcher Gerald Pollack, PhD, and Climatologist L.DeWayne Cecil, PhD, appearing on the Sharon Kleyne Hour™ Power of Water® radio show, noted three potential weaknesses that could impact the reliability of weather simulations.
None of these individuals dispute that Earth’s climate is changing. Nor do they dispute an impending global water supply shortage of catastrophic proportions. Cecil, Pollack and Kleyne would like to see more basic research into the behavior of water in the Earth atmosphere to improve the accuracy of computer weather models.
Cecil and Pollack, both frequent guests, were interviewed on Sharon Kleyne Hour™ Power of Water® radio broadcast of April 20, 2015. For a podcast, go to http://www.SharonKleyneHour.com.
Gerald Pollack, PhD, is Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Washington. His latest book is The Fourth Phase of Water (Ebner & Sons, 2013). Fourth Phase Water is midway between ice and liquid but is not cold and has many unique properties.
L. DeWayne Cecil, PhD, is a Climatologist formerly with NASA, NOAA and the USGS. He is currently employed by Global Science and Technology, Ashville, NC.
The syndicated Sharon Kleyne Hour™ Power of Water® radio show, hosted by fresh water advocate Sharon Kleyne, is heard weekly on VoiceAmerica and Apple iTunes. The education oriented show is sponsored by Bio-Logic Aqua® Research, founded by Kleyne and specializing in fresh water, atmosphere and dehydration. Nature’s Tears® EyeMist® is the Research Center’s signature product for dry eyes.
The weaknesses cited by Cecil, Pollack and Kleyne are: Gaps in our understanding of the physics of water evaporation, gaps in our understanding of cloud formation and behavior and lack of remote sensing technology to accurately measure large-scale soil moisture changes.
Evaporation occurs, according to Kleyne, when liquid water absorbs heat, molecular movement speeds up and clusters of surface molecules break off and float upward as vapor. Water vapor from surface evaporation moderates Earth’s climate, makes the surface habitable and is the basis for cloud formation and weather. Water vapor is present everywhere in Earth’s atmosphere and it all begins with evaporation.
The exact process that causes water molecules clusters to break loose, according to Pollack, is not completely understood. Clusters vary in size from a few invisible molecules to million of molecules, visible as steam. Evaporation is affected by temperature, the amount of water vapor already in the atmosphere (humidity), air pollution and other factors.
Pollack’s Fourth Phase Water drastically changes the behavior or water molecules in ways we are only beginning to discover. Fourth Phase Water forms on surfaces where evaporation occurs, and in contact zones where water touches other substances. It holds airborne water vapor droplets together and helps them cling to dust particles.
The amount of vapor entering the atmosphere is a primary driver of drought, says Cecil. Once established, a drought pattern can be self-perpetuating and difficult to break.
Clouds, Cecil agrees, are among the great mysteries of science. Pollack notes that water vapor droplets are heavier than air and often have a dust or pollution particles at their core. These droplets should not be able to remain suspended thousands of feet up. While science understands a lot about cloud physics, says Cecil, there is far more to learn.
Soil moisture content, Kleyne notes, is vital to water supply, agricultural success and the perpetuation of drought cycles. Soil moisture evaporation contributes to atmospheric humidity and cloud formation. During drought cycles, evaporated soil moisture is not replaced and moisture content decreases.
Soil moisture, Cecil notes, is currently difficult to measure from a distance with ground, air or satellite based remote sensing equipment. Since soil moisture is a predictor of drought, improved ability to detect widespread pattern changes would be immensely helpful.
Pollack notes that Fourth Phase water helps moisture cling to soil particles. “Hydrophyllic” substances such as organic matter, generates more Fourth Phase Water and therefore helps soil retain water.
An improved understanding of how the human body acquires, utilizes and loses water, Kleyne adds, might also lead to more efficient and less wasteful water consumption. Kleyne quotes the late Dr Ralph Weiss, that “clean water is light water and dirty water is heavy water.” This suggests that a good starting point in optimizing water use on the planet is to keep the water in our bodies, and the water in the air, clean and unpolluted.